The course has two sections. Section 1 deals with treatment methods for the production of drinking water from untreated water. Section 2 deals with the recovery of water, materials and energy from municipal wastewater. In section 1, regarding water treatment for the production of potable water, the aim of the course is twofold: first, to consolidate the developments in the design of water works engineering that have evolved as a result of technological advancement and of the concepts and policies promulgated by the environmental laws; second, to develop step-by-step pro¬cedures for planning and designof a medium-size conventional water treatment plant. Some important aspects in the operation of a water treatment plant are also discussed.
- History of water treatment, raw water quality data and their importance for public health and legislation referring to potable water.
- Theory and principles of water treatment processes. Current and future trends in water treatment technology, water quality constituents, design factors, drinking water regulations, unit operations and processes, process combinations and process trains.
- Example of a medium-size water treatment plant: A predesign engineering report is presented including procedures for (1) estimation of population, water demand, plant capacity, and raw water quality; (2) evaluation and selection of a treatment process train.
- Step-by-step design calculations; plant layout, engineering drawings, specifications and the avoidance of design errors. Topics discussed include: raw water intake, screening, pump station, transport pipeline, flow measurement, rapid mix (coagulation), flocculation, clarification, filtration, activated carbon adsorption, disinfection, distribution of clean water and residuals handling and disposal.
- Production of reclaimed water from municipal wastewater. Technologies applied and different quality obtain for different uses, explanation of existing regulatory framework and guidelines, successful case studies reclaimed water reuse, exercises of disinfection of treated wastewater
- Production of energy from wastewater: analysis of anaerobic processes to recover energy (UASB, anaerobic MBR, microbial fuel cells), energy balance
- Recovery of nutrients from sewage: technologies for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery, final use of products, problems in distribution of recovered resources.