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D2.4 Advanced Environmental Hydraulics

Introduction, transport processes in the water environment (advection, turbulent diffusion, dispersion), basic equations, analytical solutions and applications for mixing in 1-D and 2-D natural water bodies (  rivers, estuaries, lakes and reservoirs, coastal waters), stratified flows (Boussinesq approximation, internal waves, density currents, saline wedge etc), jets and plumes (basic characteristics, dilution and mixing in the near and far field), diffusers and outfalls, introduction to geophysical fluid dynamics (Coriolis force, geostrophic flows, Ekman layer, upwelling). The above topics are covered with the following order:

  1. Transport and mixing processes in the water environment: advection, diffusion, dispersion. Basic equations and analytical solutions.
  2. Turbulent diffusion. Estimate of diffusion coefficients, 4/3 law, mixing in coastal waters.
  3. Shear dispersion. Estimate of dispersion coefficient in one-dimensional water bodies. Mixing in conduits, channels, streams and rivers. Analytical solutions. Applications.
  4. Mixing in estuaries, lakes and reservoirs. Renewal time. Applications.
  5. Stratified flows: Basic concepts, Boussinesq approximation, internal waves. 2-layer flow equations, density currents, internal hydraulic jump, saline wedge. Stability and mixing at density interfaces. Convective flows, double-diffusion phenomena.
  6. Elements of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics: Effects of earth rotation, geostrophic flows, Ekman layer in the atmosphere and oceans, coastal upwelling.
  7. Jets and plumes: Classification, basic parameters. Evolution and mixing in the near- and far-field. Jet interaction, influence of environmental conditions (ambient currents, stratification). Diffusers and outfalls. Applications.