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D2.1 Wastewater Sea Outfalls

The course deals with the design and operation of wastewater sea outfalls. The main topics of the course refer to the microbiological pollution of bathing waters and the relevant European legislation, the environmental design of the sea outfalls, the mechanisms of pathogens reduction (initial dilution, subsequent dilution, pathogens decay), the hydraulic design of the works, the application techno-economical methodologies, the deterministic and stochastic approaches, calculation of the loadings due to waves and currents, design implementation of block ballast and  outfall protection against hydrodynamic loads in the surf zone as well as in deeper waters, measures against other hazards, outfall deployment and relevant stability checks.  These topics are covered with the following order:

  1. The problem of microbiological pollution of bathing waters. The European legislation. Types of sea outfalls.
  2. Environmental design of sea outfalls. The main pathogens reduction mechanisms (initial dilution, subsequent dilution, pathogens decay). Stratified vs non-stratified conditions. The effect of currents.
  3. Hydraulic design of multiport diffusers. Deterministic vs stochastic methodologies.
  4. Techno-economical methodologies – optimization of design.
  5. Loads on outfalls and risers due to waves and currents. Morison’s equation. Loads due to falling anchors and estimation of their penetration into the outfall protection.
  6. Design of ballast and protection of outfalls. Stability checks against environmental loads.
  7. Constructional and operational issues. Case studies.
  8. Project design.