D1.4 Special Topics of Water Chemistry
Introduction to the basic concepts of water chemistry, a branch of science that studies the chemical behavior of natural water systems (oceans, estuaries, lakes, rivers, groundwater, and atmospheric water). It includes the study of physicochemical processes that affect the distribution, circulation and transformations of chemical species in natural water systems. In the chemistry of natural water systems, the kinetic and thermodynamic study of these reactions is important. Particular emphasis is given on determining the concentration of chemical species that react with water (molecules, ions, atoms) of a water system in a state of chemical equilibrium.
- Structure and properties of water. Composition of natural waters
- Aqueous solutions. Methods of expressing concentration of solutions in water chemistry – properties of aqueous solutions
- Basic principles of chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics.
- Acid-base reactions (pH, acid-base equilibrium calculations,pC-pH diagrams. Ionization fractions and distribution diagrams. pH Buffers and buffer Intensity. The Carbonate System. Alkalinity and acidity.
- Oxidation- reduction reactions. Corrosion. Chlorine chemistry. Iron chemistry.
- Metal chemistry in water systems – Complexation reactions.
- Precipitation and dissolution reactions.
- Solid-water interface reactions (Adsorption -Ion exchange). Colloid chemistry
- Selected topics in organic chemistry.