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Α1.1 Hydrometeorology

The course aims to introduce students to the basic concepts of the science of hydrometeorology, meteorological measurements and the hydrological cycle. The general characteristics of the atmosphere and its thermodynamics such as Laws of thermodynamics, the changes of phase, etc. are presented. The topic of the energy balance, the atmospheric circulation (local and global meteorological systems) and the wind energy are also addressed. Additional methodologies for assessing the possible maximum precipitation are being examined and the physical and meteorological context of the precipitation, as well as evaporation and perspiration, are being studied. The course focuses also on telemetric methods for measuring precipitation in hydrometeorological models of precipitation forecasting with special applications for rain estimation and forecasting. Finally, climate change and its changes are introduced. The structure of the course is as follows:

  1. Introduction: Definitions, brief history, meteorological measurements, hydrological cycle.
  2. General characteristics of the atmosphere: Origin, composition, vertical structure.
  3. Thermodynamics of the atmosphere: Laws of thermodynamics, laws of perfect gasses, water vapour in the atmosphere, changes of phase, changes of state.
  4. Radiation in the atmosphere – Energy budget.
  5. Atmospheric circulation: Atmospheric pressure and winds, regional and global meteorological systems, air masses, fronts, cyclones. Wind power. Transfer processes between atmosphere and land – vegetation – water surfaces.
  6. Evaporation and Transpiration: Energy approach, aerodynamic and combined approach.
  7. Precipitation: Physical context, meteorological context.
  8. Probable maximum precipitation: concept and estimation methodologies.
  9. Telemetric methods of precipitation measurements: satellite measurements, weather radar measurements. Hydrological models of precipitation forecasting. Introduction to climatology. Climatic variability and climatic change.
  10. Special applications for rainfall estimation and forecasting. Case studies.